Richardson / Vipond / Clementson / Armstrong Australian connection.
John Victor Richardson born 1887 Lucknow Victoria at Nicholson in 1922 married Sarah Ann Liddell born 1896 in Bairnsdale. Jack's father Emerson Richardson (born Alston in 1853) married Elleanor (Ellen) Vipond (born Alston in 1860), the daughter of James Vipond and Mary Ann Bell, both natives of Alston. James Vipond's parents were John Vipond born Garrigill in 1801 and Elleanor Moffatt from Alston born 1800. John Vipond was the youngest son of Thomas Vipond born 1768 and Frances Emerson born 1775, both natives of Alston.

Sarah Elizabeth Vipond shown above, born Low House Garrigill in 1739, was actually an aunt of Frances Emerson, and the parish records indicate Sarah married William Clementson at Alston on 29 Dec 1766. William Clementson was the second son of John Clementson and Sarah Shield, was born in 1842 in Garrigill, and it was his great grandson Matthew Clementson, who married Anne Armstrong shown as Generation 5 in the next timeline image.

Armstrong Family Tree.


Family Crests for Armstrong and Bowman.

As is often the case, records dating back to the early 1700s, like those of John Armstrong born 1705 in Haltwhistle, and his wife Margaret, from nearby Nether Denton, born 1710 are quite limited. The only sourced data available for John and Margaret Armstrong, is that they married in her home town of Nether Denton, on 16 Nov 1731, and proceeded to have a quite large family, consisting of 6 girls and 4 boys. Naturally our focus is upon our Armstrong family members who emigrated to the Victorian Gold Rush in the 1800's, all of whom were descendant of John and Margaret's youngest son Edward Armstrong, born in 1750 at Brampton, and his wife from Woodmass Walls Allendale, Mary Birket, born in 1747.

Armstrong Timeline from John Armstrong born 1705, down to Anne Armstrong at left, born 1842 at Ninebanks, U.K..
Kindly note, this view has been expanded to illustrate early long standing family links with the Hetherington family, plus connections with Dixon and Teasdale families in Australia, as mentioned in the letter transcription by James Armstrong from 1863, covered further below on this page. Located records found to date show John and Anne's children were Dorothy Armstrong, Jane Armstrong, Thomas Armstrong, Richard Armstrong, Elizabeth Armstrong, Ann Armstrong, Mary Armstrong, Margaret Armstrong, William Armstrong, and lastly Edward Armstrong, with Haltwhistle being the predominant place of birth of this family branch.


Going by the birth records, Edward and Mary Armstrong's family of 9 children, it appears the family resided quite close to the region where Mary grew up, that is in Ninebanks, Allendale, and Carrshield. These small townships are within close proximity of each other, and assumedly were convenient for mining locations, because most workers lived close to worksites, as was often the case in those days. Edward and Mary's children were Betty Armstrong, William Armstrong, John Armstrong, Miles Armstrong, Mary Armstrong, Elizabeth Armstrong, Edward Armstrong, Matthew Armstrong, and Joseph Armstrong.

Family of Edward Armstrong and Mary Birket in Northumberland.

From the offspring of their 6 sons and 3 daughters, it has been confirmed some descendants these 9 children, in particular grandson of John Armstrong ( born 1775 ) and his wife Mary Craig - John Christopher Armstrong, plus also 5 of Joseph Armstrong ( born 1790 ) and his wife Jane Wilkinson's children - in particular James Armstrong, John Wilkinson Armstrong, Joseph Armstrong, Sarah Armstrong, and William Armstrong, actually emigrated to Victoria, as outlined and clarified below here.


A great old photo of Allendale of 1875, where many of our Armstrong children were born and raised,

John Armstrong was the second son and third child of Edward Armstrong and Mary Birket, born in 1775 at Allendale. John married Mary Craig in Allendale on 27 Dec 1800, and proceeded to develop quite a large family of 12 children.

Original Baptism record for John and Mary's second son Neddy Armstrong in 1801.

As it turned out their second son Edward "Neddy" Armstrong married Hannah Makepeace, and it was actually their second child, and first son John Christopher Armstrong, who emigrated to Australia for the Victorian Gold Rush. Later in life, Neddy's siblings married some well known local Lead Ore Mining families mainly from around district 13 and 17 where they lived in Allendale, being Hetherington ( x2 ), Swindle, Lee, Martin, Rowell, Coates, and Henderson.

Family of John Christopher Armstrong at left, and he is summarised in the Emigration section further on.

In order to retain focus on descendants who emigrated to the Victorian Gold Rush, this special timeline has been prepared, covering numerous inter marriages of local families, with Hetherington on both sides of the family in this instance. It was quite common back in these days, for say 2 or 3 siblings from one family, to marry members from a single family nearby, as people often didn't travel far from home for social and courting purposes. Coincidentally, Hannah's brother William Makepeace married Neddy Armstrong's sister Ann Alice Armstrong - families were close in many ways, as effective family support and networking were often vital for survival, when times were tough.


Timeline of Joseph Armstrong and family, at left.

Joseph Armstrong was the sixth son and twelfth child of Edward Armstrong and Mary Birket, born in 1790 at Carr Shield, and he married Allendale lass Jane Wilkinson aged 17, the wedding taking place in Allendale on 5 Jun 1813. Joseph and Jane Armstrong unknowing and indirectly played a sizable role increasing the numbers of diggers on the Victorian Gold Fields, as in time, actually after Josephs death in 1845, 5 out of their 11 children emigrated to Australia, being James Armstrong, John Wilkinson Armstrong, Joseph Armstrong ( junior ), Sarah Armstrong, and William Armstrong.

Census record of 1841 in district 16 of Allendale, of the Armstrong family.

This census record of our Armstrong family of Joseph and Jane Armstrong nee Wilkinson, appears of special interest for numerus reasons. Firstly it is the first official confirmation our Armstrong clan from this region were actually Lead Ore Miners, this Census pertaining to 2 Armstrong generations. It also covers the family link to the Wilkinsons, as Joseph's mother-in-law Ann Wilkinson aged 70 was living in his household. This census listing also denotes the 5 Armstrong children who emigrated to Victoria Australia, being James, John Wilkinson, Joseph, Sarah, and William Armstrong.

1841 Census for Anne Armstrong's mother Mary Armstrong, and Mary's brother-in-law John Harrison.

It is also important to describe the circumstances surrounding Joseph and Jane's grand daughter Anne Armstrong, who also emigrated to Victoria. Joseph and Jane had 6 daughters, and the two in need of outlining, were Jane born in 1815, and younger sister Mary born 1823. Although no marriage record has been located, Jane had 4 children with John Harrison, also born in Allendale in 1920. The 1841 Census lists younger sister Mary Armstrong was 15 years old, living with her sister Jane and her apparent husband John Harrison, working in this household as a "Female Servant", as was quite common in those days. However, Mary had her daughter Anne at Ninebanks the following year, so its appears Mary fell pregnant to John Harrison during this period of employment.

1851 Census for Anne Armstrong, daughter of Mary Armstrong, and niece of Edward Armstrong.

This 1851 Census shows Mary living with her older brother Neddy back on the family farm, with her daughter Anne, who has been given the surname of Armstrong, and not Harrison. According to the Australian death record for Anne Clementson nee Armstrong, it definitely confirms her father was ( actually her uncle ) John Harrison.

A brief summary of our Armstrong relations, who arrived first, and later in 1863 and 1884.

The emigration accounts of our Armstrong ( and Clementson ) relatives, with separate voyages being numerous, and duplication of identical names made it quite difficult to establish who were siblings or cousins, or uncles and aunties. For example, in our Armstrong family tree alone, there were 6 x "William Armstrong" and 11 x "John Armstrong" relatives, of an appropriate age, who could have emigrated anywhere between the mid 1850s up until our last listed and confirmed Armstrong family voyage, in 1884.

John Wilkinson Armstrong

After days researching varying Passenger Lists and Emigration records, more-so by deductive reasoning, rather than any concrete travel evidence, it appears John Wilkinson Armstrong was the first of our Armstrong family to emigrated to Victoria, well before the Armstrong boarding party record of 1863. Records indicate 8 listings of "John Armstrong", of a similar age, who arrived in Melbourne between 1852 and 1858, so it is not possible to ascertain definitely when he chose to move to Australia. Unlike his siblings, it seems John Wilkinson Armstrong undertook the long voyage to Australia, either by himself, or maybe with neighbours or friends.

Birth records of Elizabeth Ann Teasdale Armstrong & David Watson Armstrong - both given 1 of their mother's surnames.

However, we do know for sure around when he was on the Victorian Gold Fields, as he had 3 children around Winters Flat ( near Castlemaine ) and Buninyong ( near Ballarat ), before he married Mary Ann Teasdale nee Watson in Feb of 1863. Going by the births of their other 4 children, John and Mary's family seemed to remain in this region, eg. Cambrian Hill, Sebastopol, and Campbells Creek, all very lucrative Gold Mining townships.

Detailed financial & equipment report about the Alston and Weardale Gold Mine - 1865. Courtesy Trove & Ballarat Star.

As far a Shareholder records and mining reports go, only one definite cutting has been found confirming John's mining efforts, being a Director of the Alston and Weardale Gold Mining company at Cambrian Hill. It would be fairly safe to say it was John's cousin John Christopher Armstrong also here listed as a fellow Director. It's also possible that the "W. Bell" listed was the husband of our Sarah Richardson, William Bell, who was known to also be an early Shareholder in the Alston and Weardale gold mine.

Not much else is known about John W. and Mary Armstrong, that except John passed away in this mining area at Buninyong, and their descendants made a heart-warming effort to honour them all, as per the following photo.

Family Plaque of John Wilkinson Armstrong, wife Mary Ann Teasdale nee Watson & their children. Courtesy Ancestry.

John Christopher Armstrong

It has not been officially confirmed when John Christopher Armstrong landed in Victoria, as there were two likely candidates of the same name whom both arrived in Melbourne in 1860. Much research time regarding John Christopher and his wife Elizabeth Mary Wilkinson nee Armstrong has proven little success - nothing confirmable on the Victorian Gold Fields, however they did marry in this state in 1866.

Marriage record of John Christopher Armstrong and Elizabeth Mary Wilkinson in 1866.

No personal records have been confirmed about Elizabeth Wilkinson whatsoever, however John, and maybe Elizabeth too moved to Queensland at some stage, as John died there on 1900.

Queensland Death Record for John Christopher Armstrong in 1900.

Armstrong family members who arrived in April 1863 at Hobsons Bay, Melbourne.

Hobsons Bay ( Port Melbourne, Victoria ) where most of our family landed
per photo circa 1878 Courtesy Museum of Victoria.

This section covers arrivals of Anne Clementson nee Armstrong and her brothers James & William Armstrong in 1863.

The Armstrong and Clementson boarding parties, on board the SS Great Britain in 1863.

Anne Clementson nee Armstrong

The original Emigration record above, shows John's brothers James and William Armstrong came to Victoria on board the S.S. Great Britain in 1863, along with their sister Anne Armstrong and her family, who by then, had had 2 children at Allendale Northumberland, with her husband Matthew Clementson. There were another 3 Clementson relatives of Matthew Clementson who also arrived on the same voyage on 3 April in 1863, and along with more details of Anne Armstrong's life at Piggoreet, they have been outlined on the
Clementson Family Tree.

This record indicates Anne Clementson nee Armstrong aged 21, was the wife of Matthew Clementson, and daughter of John Harrison and Mary Armstrong from Ninebanks. Obviously their first two young daughters, Elizabeth and Emma, survived the trip from Liverpool, and Matthew and Anne ended up having 3 children registered at Springdallah via Piggoreet, Tom, Mary and John ( Jack ).

The Clementson house at the top end of Piggoreet, was apparently known and regarded as "Clementsons Corner". Courtesy the late Joan Higgs & Woady Yalloak Historical Society.

William Armstrong

Also on the same voyage came William Armstrong aged 23, noted as a Labourer. William was the eleventh ( last ) child and fifth son of Joseph Armstrong and Jane Wilkinson, and also was naturally an uncle of Anne Clementson nee Armstrong. Our Victorian cousins the Andersons, ( descendants of William by marriage ), state on their web site William and brother James Armstrong returned to England apparently in quite a good financial situation, where William married Mary Ann Bell back in Northumberland on 22nd Nov 1879, and they had 2 sons Joseph Armstrong and William Wilkinson Armstrong in Northumberland, England. This family, plus an influx of other Armstrong family members, returned to Victoria Australia in 1884, as outlined below.

Photos of William Armstrong at left, and his wife, Mary Ann Bell, apparently taken in England, some time before 1884.
Courtesy Anderson Family History web site.

With very grateful appreciation to the Anderson family, we are able to also review two amazing transcribed family letters posted back home to England, one written in 1864 by William Armstrong to his brother, and the second lengthy correspondence by William's brother James Armstrong to his sister Elizabeth Armstrong and brother-in-law Vipond Clementson, from the gold fields at Piggoreet in 1863. Its more than a coincidence these 2 letters, not only mentions working in gold mines which were of great Richardson family interest, but also covers numerous contacts with other Richardson relations and old friends and neighbours mainly from back home in Cumberland and Northumberland.

Transcript of letter from William Armstrong at Devils Kitchen ( via Piggoreet ) 22 Aug 1864 to a brother in U.K.

Please accept this invitation to review some highly recommended reading of letters from Australian Gold Diggers where our researcher has endeavoured provide additional background material relative to the people and places mentioned by James and William Armstrong in their letters.

If you look closely near the bottom at the right, William Armstrong's signature is on the copy of the original letter. It should be mentioned similar diligence has been undertaken researching William Armstrong in areas on the Gold Fields other family members were known to reside and work.

The only Share record found for William Armstrong - Victoria Gold Mining Company 1866.

Oddly on 1 Shareholders listing of 1 only share in the Victoria Gold Mining Company was found for William Armstrong, however the above letter confirms "I still work at the Try Again" in 1864, a Gold Mine located quite close to his sister Anne Clementson's house at Piggoreet. We may gather William Armstrong had less capital to invest, and / or was happy working for a wage at the Try Again Gold Mine, which was a major family concern,
as extensively detailed here.

Site of The Try Again Gold Mine at Devils Kitchen in 2015 - Courtesy Researcher Mixo Sydenham.

To the best of our knowledge and Anderson family recollection, William and James returned to England sometime in the 1870s, after James in particular had substantial investments in Gold Mines for nearly a decade. When they came back to Victoria in 1884, William had married Mary Ann Bell and started a family of two boys, and his occupation was noted as a Pawn broker. Initially James and his family went to Sea Lake near Swan Hill in northern Victoria, and had a daughter Mary Jane who sadly died as an infant in 1884. Shortly after they moved to East Gippsland, had a son John in 1886 and a daughter Elizabeth in 1887, both in Bairnsdale.

Parish Map showing William Armstrong's land highlighted in green, and Joseph Liddell's farms in blue.

It was around this time frame William bought quite a large farm of 273 acres at Sarsfield, the bottom corner of the property being on the banks of the Nicholson River, and its well known Drawbridge. It was probably not a coincidence the Armstrong property was under a mile away from our relations farm, owned by Joseph and Mary Liddell - twas at Joseph's brother John Liddell's Try Again hotel at Piggoreet, where James Armstrong wrote about having an occasional nobbler or two with his old friends from Northumberland.

Draw bridge on the Nicholson River circa 1910, about a mile or two from William Armstrong's farm.

William and Mary Ann Armstrong had a further two daughters at what became known as Lower Nicholson, probably on the farm. They were twins, Jane and Mary Ann, who was known as Polly, who was unofficially adopted by the Bosse family in Nicholson, after their mother died in 1890.

Death records of William Armstrong of 1923 and Mary Ann Bell of 1890.

James Armstrong

James Armstrong's unassisted passenger record notes him arriving in Melbourne aged 35 in 1863, with his profession stated as a labourer. James was born late in 1826 at Out Gate in West Allendale, had 10 siblings as illustrated above, and was also naturally an uncle of Anne Clementson nee Armstrong. James Armstrong was probably a fairly typical example of Gold Miners of the 1850s and 1860s, as many were renowned to be classed as transient or itinerant workers and investors, who moved frequently from town to town, as news of new finds and reefs became known. Out of all our Armstrong family who became Gold Diggers in Victoria, James Armstrong seemed to be the most prolific Investor / Shareholder in Gold Mining Companies and he moved around the region accordingly, as newspaper cuttings of the times, noted him as a substantial, even at times the major investor in such Victorian Gold Mines as

The Archer : Residence - Springdallah. 1863 ( Nominal Shareholder )

James Armstrong Shares in the Archer Gold Mine at Piggoreet in 1863. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

Sons of Freedom : Residence - Napoleons Lead. 1864 ( Major Shareholder )

Co-investment of James Armstrong with George Armstrong at Buninyong. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

Memorial of Waterloo Gold Mine : Residence - Napoleons Lead. 1864 ( High Shareholder )

Memorial of Waterloo Gold Mine at Jerusalem Lead. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

Buninyong United Gold Mining co : Residence - Napoleons Lead. 1865 ( 1 of 6 provisional directors ).

Involvement in the Buninyong Gold Mining Co as Director, by James Armstrong in 1865. Courtesy The Age and Trove.

Havelock Gold Mining Co : Residence - Napoleons Lead. 1865 ( Major Shareholder )

Falcon Gold Mining Co : Residence - Ballarat. 1866 ( early investor )

James Armstrong - Shareholder in the Falcon Gold Mine. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

New Don Gold Mining Co : Residence - Ballarat. 1868 ( minor investor )

James Armstrong - Shareholder in the New Don GMC. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

Monte Christie Freehold Quartz and Gold Mining Co : Residence - Scotchmans Lead. 1869 ( Major Shareholder )

James Armstrong - Major Shareholder in the Monte Christie mine at Scotchmans Lead. Courtesy Ballarat Star and Trove.

So we know our James Armstrong was a serious investor in local Gold Mining companies, perhaps with better cash reserves than his siblings. However as a bachelor all his life, it may be of interest to also note, he was very family orientated, and missed his relations and friends from the old country, per this transcribed letter of 1863 form Piggoreet.

Sample transcribed page of James Armstrong's letter from Piggoreet in 1863. Courtesy Anderson Family History site.

Unbeknown to James, the Armstrong family actually became distantly related to the Liddell family, via Anne Armstrong's marriage to Matthew Clementson, whose ascendants were related per a Clementson / Vipond / Liddell link in the 1700s. So his reference of a visit from Matthew Dixon from Dry Burn near Allendale, being "We had two or three nobblers together and had a great yarn. We went over to Janes place together. It is about 5 years since he met with Lidddl and Jane" refers to the Try Again Hotel ( AKA Janes place ) owned by John & Jane Liddell nee Lee.

Site of The Try Again Hotel at Piggoreet in 2015 - Courtesy Researcher Mixo Sydenham.

Kindly note, the mullock heap on the hill crest by the larger tree is the remnants of The Archer Gold Mine, William Armstrong writes about in his letter. The Try Again Hotel was situated to the left of this photo, on top of a small plateau over the hill crest. Please accept this invitation to review some highly recommended reading of letters from Australian Gold Diggers where our researcher has endeavoured provide additional background material relative to the people and places mentioned by James and William Armstrong in letters.

Land Selection plan for John and Jane Liddell's Try Again Hotel & the Archer Shaft - Courtesy Joan Hunt.

Going by the above Gold Mine Shareholder reports, James was known to be an active investor in this region till 1869, so it is logical to presume he returned to England with his brother William some time in the 1870s. He did return to Victoria in 1884, and lived with brothers William and Joseph on William's farm at Sarsfield in East Gippsland until he passed away, a bachelor aged 77, at Bairnsdale in 1903.

Armstrong family members who arrived in July 1884 at Hobsons Bay, Melbourne.

This section covers arrivals in 1884 of William Armstrong, his wife Mary Ann Armstrong nee Bell, his children Joseph and William Wilkinson Armstrong, plus his siblings Sarah, Joseph, and James Armstrong. Brothers James and William Armstrong, and Mary Ann Armstrong nee Bell shown on this Passenger List, have been covered, higher up this page.

The last Armstrong boarding party, landing in Melbourne on board the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1884.

Joseph Armstrong - 1st son of William and Mary Ann Armstrong.

Joseph Armstrong was noted as being born at Keenly Wells via Allendale in Aug of 1880, and was recorded as being 3 and a half years old on his Emigration document. As with his parents and most of his other siblings, it looks as though he spent his younger years and early adulthood near Bairnsdale, and after marrying Ada Maria Smith on 10 Oct 1906 they had 5 children, most of them born at Lucknow, on the edge of Bairnsdale township.

Marriage record of Joseph Armstrong and Ada Maria Smith in 1906.

It is not known exactly when or why, however these Armstrongs moved to the Cann River region, in the far eastern and very remote corner of Victoria, where they became graziers, apparently just a few miles north of Cann River at Noorinbee. Joseph and Ada, and sons Joseph Junior and Edward all lived out much their lives in or around Noorinbee.

Damage and losses to James Armstrong near Cann River in 1919.

William Wilkinson Armstrong - 2nd son of William and Mary Ann Armstrong.

Direct from, and with thanks to the Anderson Family site -

"Bill Anderson was born on the 18th of April 1882 in Red Lead Mill, Slaley, Northumberland, England and died on the 2nd of April in Sale, Victoria, Australia. He was 84 years old when he died, and his cause of death was officially stated as broncho-pneumonia and congestive heart failure. He was the husband of Nellie Wills, and the father of Alice Armstrong. Bill left England with his family on the 27th of May 1884 aboard the SS Gulf of Carpentaria for Australia, when he was only two years old. His parents have another child en-route to Australia, but she sadly died later that year.

William Wilkinson Armstrong and wife Nellie Wills.

After his marriage to Nellie Wills in 1912, Bill was listed on the Electoral Roll as a farmer in Longford. In 1924 they began farming in Johnsonville and in the late 1920s they moved to a farm in Kilmany. Among documents found when Billís son Frank died , there was a Discharged Soldiers Passbook issued by the Closer Settlement Board in Billís name, suggesting that Bill served in WWI. However, despite lots of searching, no record of his service has been found because Bill was still listed on the Electoral Roll as a farmer in Johnsonville. The seven year gap between the birth of two of his children, Alice and Stan, suggests that Bill may have been out of the country for a few years.

Billís son Frank took over the farm when Billís health deteriorated during WWII. After Nellieís death in 1938, Bill married Ada Goodman in 1948, and the farm was handed down to Frank. Bill went blind in the late 1940s and is remembered sitting in his armchair chatting about daily events with a strong accent, that many thought was Scottish".

Sarah Armstrong

Apart from her birth in mid 1837 in Allendale where she lived all her life till emigrating in 1884 aged 46, Sarah Armstrong's life is a complete mystery - ie no Victorian records found whatsoever, and nothing confirmable in any other state of Australia.

Joseph Armstrong

Joseph was probably convinced by first hand words of encouragement by his brothers James and William that moving to Australia with all its potential and opportunities, was well worth while. Both their parents Joseph and Jane had passed away by this time, and the idea of a new life on the other side of the world obviously appealed. Joseph Armstrong emigrated to Victoria in July of 1884 with other immediate family members, and lack of records indicate he did not marry, however did live with brothers Joseph and William on William's farm at Sarsfield in East Gippsland.

1903 Census of brothers Joseph, James, and William living together on the farm at Sarsfield near the Nicholson River.

Little else is known about Joseph, apart from the fact he passed away aged 71, at the nearby Bairnsdale Hospital in 1905. record of James Armstrongs death at Bairnsdale in 1905.

Back to Site Index.

Background into Lead Ore Mining in Northern U.K.

Background into the Gold Rush days near Ballarat Victoria.

From Joseph Richardson born 1721 at Alston, U.K.

From John Richardson's descendants from 1863 born in Australia.

From John Allison born in 1801, Alston U.K.

From John Armstrong born in 1705, Haltwhistle U.K.

From Thomas Bell born 1806 of Allendale, U.K.

From James Broadwood born 1796 of Northumberland, U.K.

From William Calvert born 1791 at Kirkhaugh, U.K.

From John Clementson born 1692 in Garrigill, U.K.

From William Coulson born 1760 in Cumberland, U.K.

From Robert Cochrane born 1778 in Eglington, U.K.

From Edward Hewitson born 1794 in Kirk Linton, U.K.

From John Liddell born 1880s in Ninebanks, U.K.

From Joseph Parker born 1810 at Allendale, U.K.

From James Rowe born 1765 in Cornwall, U.K.

From Nicholas Vipond born 1655 in Alston, U.K.

For a great insight to life of Aussie Gold Diggers, please make time to review 2 amazing Armstrong family letters written from the Victoria Gold fields in the early 1860s by James and William Armstrong, to immediate family members back home in northern UK.

Letters from by James and William Armstrong in the 1860s.

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